Managing ADHD Impulses in the Classroom

class-1459570__340Impulsivity is a common symptom of ADHD. The sudden urge to do or say something, coupled with the difficulty of regulating behaviors and emotions make children with ADHD more likely to be labeled and treated as troublemakers.

Noted behaviors in the classroom setting are blurting inappropriate comments, making noises, being goofy, not completing work, getting into other’s space, arguing, threatening, and grabbing. These are common behavioral thoughts most children have, although children with ADHD struggle with stopping these thoughts, thinking of the consequences before following through with their behavioral urges, and using adaptive coping skills.

In an effort to decrease the disruptions and consequential frustration, below is a list of classroom interventions that will be of help when implemented consistently.

 

 

  1. Re-evaluate Your Expectations: Expect impulses to happen in children with ADHD. Note the children are not being purposeful or malicious, but reacting to their body’s reflexes.
  2. Be Neutral: Respond in a non-reactive manner in an effort to decrease one’s shame and defensiveness, which may later be observed in defiant behaviors.
  3. Use Visual Reminders: Proactively discuss with the children the classroom rules and natural consequences. Post visual reminders of the expectations on the child’s desk, the classroom wall, on homework assignments, or tests. When impulsive behaviors are observed, without using your words, point to the symbol that indicates the need to STOP, breathe, and think about making a prideful choice.
  4. Acknowledge Impulse Control: Build children’s self-awareness and confidence, by narrating your observations of their behavioral control. For example, “I notice Jenny is sitting calmly in her chair while we wait for the directions. This makes me happy.”
  5. Use a Visual Schedule: Posting the day’s schedule on the board helps provide children a sense of control because they are aware of the day’s expectation.
  6. Permit Activity Breaks: Uncomfortable feelings and urges in everyone are easily decreased when we engage in an action. The physical movement messages to our brain that we are safe and have control. So, even if the impulse is to hit someone, the simple act of just standing up and down or stretching your arms will help eliminate the negative urges. This is often why a common suggestion when others are upset is to go for a walk. The movement helps water down the frustration.
  7. Model Self-Control: When you are frustrated or upset, narrate your feelings and self-care strategies and then simultaneously do it. For example, “I am feeling upset that I can’t find my book. I have the urge to throw my pencil, but I know that is not a safe choice. I am going to sit down and take a deep breath so I can think clearly.”
  8. original-2048366-1Practice Relaxation: When minds and bodies are relaxed, children are more likely to use reason and logic and think through the consequences before engaging in non-prideful behaviors. Start the day or before each transition with breathing exercises or meditations. This will help settle high energy and impulses.

 

 

Building Bridges with Parents of Disruptive Children

Reach out to parents early on to share your interest and good intentions of working together. After speaking to a parent in person or over the phone, an online partnership might be a good next step. To promote parent reception and eliminate defensiveness, consider scheduled weekly or biweekly emails:

Bridge Building 101

building bridge

Review specific goal(s). Keep the email focused on the specific goal that is being worked on. This will help eliminate child blame and focus on strategies that are working or need tweaking. For example, instead of “I am emailing you about David’s anger problem,” try “I am emailing you today regarding our goal of anger management.”

Use language that demonstrates partnership, such as “us, we, our, let’s.” Although this may show a looseness of boundaries,  we want parents to understand we are equally invested in their child’s goals and progress; and this avoids blaming statements.  A helpful example of positive language is, “let’s  work on helping David with coping skills this week.”

Invite parent expertise. A newbie mistake is assuming parents are at fault for their child’s behaviors. Regularly ask the parent/s for their advice. Ask what has worked for their child before, what is working for the child at home, and what reasonable suggestions the school could try to help their child’s behavior. This will not only provide strategies you may not have considered before but helps to improve the parent’s feeling of value and connection.

Include positive behaviors and progress towards goals. Similar to children, parents need to feel encouraged and supported. Parents need to hear their children are moving in a positive direction and although there may be a temporary regression, reminders of the steps made forward are necessary to sustain hope. Although this may be a challenge, it will be a critical piece of gaining parent investment.

When sharing updates that include negative behaviors, avoid language that shows judgment or criticism. Simply state the facts. Instead of  “David lost control again and rudely threw his pencil. He can’t seem to control his anger,” try, “David struggled with impulse control today and threw his pencil.” Sticking to facts prevents emotional and finger-pointing responses.

Avoid reviewing the negative consequences to their child’s behaviors, such as “the teacher and the classmates are tired of his behavior.”  This will only promote shame and resistance. Instead, focus on the positive consequences that include the both of you working together. For example, “I plan to review coping skills with David this week. I will send home a list of the skills he prefers to practice at home.”

Offer help.  Even the best of parents feel helpless and inadequate. Instead of imposing recommendations, when appropriate, gently offer solutions. For example, “If you are interested, I have found some useful tips that may work at home, I would be happy to email you.” Other suggestions that help support the parent include collaborating with the student’s outside therapist and providing updates as needed.

Lastly, although parents can have a negative influence at times, we do not want to take for granted the positive influences they have on your student’s success. These emails may seem like a chore at first, but once you create a trusting connection with a parent, the fewer details need to be provided and most importantly, the alliance built aids in improved behaviors. Finally, when writing your email, always put yourself in the parent’s shoes and ask yourself, what would I want to read if this was my child?

Download the FREE editable behavioral progress note from Mental Fills.